Selected Congressional Research Service
Reports on Congress and Its Procedures

Part of LLSDC's Legislative Source Book

There are some 600 CRS reports listed below with links to downloadable files at the UNT Digital Library and to CRS reports on a website of the Federation of American Scientists  (^ A few reports are linked to files directly on * See also links and descriptions to all Major CRS Report Repositories: Free and Commercial as well as information about the Congressional Research Service and the numerous proposed Congressional measures, since 1997, to make CRS reports freely available on a U.S. Government website which was finally enacted in 2018. Thus after 2017 most all CRS reports can be found at including those on Congress and its procedures (use the Search template and/or narrow by category).

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

R43234 ^Across the Board Rescissions in Appropriations Acts: Overview and Recent Practices (19 p.)
RL33724 Administrative Issues Related to a Change in Majority in the House of Representatives (15 p.)
RS21243 Ad Hoc Select Committees: Use in the House of Representatives (4 p.)
R42098 ^Advance Appropriations, Forward Funding, and Advance Funding: Concepts, Practice, and Budget Process Considerations (30 p.)
RL30378 ^African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-20## (65 p.)
98-995 ^Amending Process in the House of Representatives, The (44 p.)
98-853 ^Amending Process in the Senate, The (36 p.)
98-812 Amendments Between the Houses (3 p.)
R41003 Amendments Between the Houses: Procedural Options and Effects (30 p.)
98-613 ^Amendments in the House: Types and Forms (5 p.)
98-614 ^Amendments in the Senate: Types and Forms (5 p.)
98-426 Amendments on the House Floor: Summary of Major Restrictions (2 p.)
R44083 ^Appointment and Confirmation of Executive Branch Leadership: An Overview (17 p.)
98-648 Appropriations Bills: What Are "General Provisions"? (2 p.)
98-558 Appropriation Bills: What Is Report Language? (3 p.)
R44124 ^Appropriations Report Language: Overview of Development ... (27 p.)
RL31572 ^Appropriations Subcommittee Structure: History of Changes from 1920 to 20## (15 p.)
R42589 ^Article V Convention to Propose Constitutional Amendments, The: Contemporary Issues for Congress (33 p.)
R42098 ^Authorization of Appropriations: Procedural and Legal Issues (15 p.)
RS22015 ^Availability of Legislative Measures in the House of Representatives (The 3 Day Rule) (10 p.)
R41907 ^Balanced Budget Constitutional Amendment, A: Background and Congressional Options (49 p.)
R44732 ^Biennial Budgeting: Issues, Options, and Congressional Actions (18 p.)
98-706 Bills and Resolutions: Examples of How Each Kind Is Used (3 p.)
98-728 Bills, Resolutions, Nominations, and Treaties: Origins, Deadlines, Requirements, and Uses (2 p.)
R40826 ^Bill of Attainder: The Constitutional Implications of Congress Legislating Narrowly (13 p.)
RL30378 Black Members of the United States Congress: 1870 - (64 p.)

^Blue-Slipping: Enforcing the Origination Clause in the House of Representatives (3 p.)

R44975 ^Blue Slip Process for U.S. Circuit and District Court Nominations, The: Frequently Asked Questions (20 p.)
R44874 ^Budget Control Act, The: Frequently Asked Questions (17 p.)
RL31943 ^Budget Enforcement Procedures: The Senate Pay-As-You-Go (PAYGO) Rule (22 p.)
98-914 ^Budget Reconciliation Legislation: Development and Consideration (3 p.)
RL30862 ^Budget Reconciliation Procedures: The Senate's "Byrd Rule" (39 p.)
RL33030 Budget Reconciliation Process, The: House and Senate Procedures (108 p.)
R44058 ^Budget Reconciliation Process, The: Stages of Consideration (13 p.)
R41151 ^Budget Reconciliation Process, The: Timing of Committee Responses to Reconciliation Directives (36 p.)
RL30458 ^Budget Reconciliation Process, The: Timing of Legislative Action (17 p.)
RS22299 ^Bypassing Senate Committees: Rule XIV and Unanimous Consent (14 p.)
98-437 ^Calendars of the House of Representatives (6 p.)
98-836 Calling Up Measures on the Senate Floor (2 p.)
RL31121 Capitol Visitor Center, The: An Overview (68 p.)
RL33209 ^Casework in a Congressional Office: Background, Rules, Laws and Resources (21 p.)
R44696 ^Casework in Congressional Offices: Frequently Asked Questions (10 p.)
R44709 ^Changing the Senate Cloture Rule at the Start of a New Congress (16 p.)
RS22731 Chief Administrative Officer of the House: History and Organization (7 p.)
98-761 Clerk of the House: Legislative and Administrative Duties (2 p.)
RL32878 Cloture Attempts on Nominations (9 p.)
98-424 *Cloture: Its Effects on Senate Floor Proceedings (3 p.)
R44431 ^Commemorative Days, Weeks, and Months: Background and Current Practice (17 p.)
R41425 ^Commemorative Commissions: Overview, Structure, and Funding (14 p.)
RL30743 Committee Assignment Process in the U.S. Senate: Democratic and Republican Party Procedures (12 p.)
98-242 Committee Jurisdiction and Referral in the Senate (3 p.)
RL30244 Committee Markup Process in the House of Representatives, The (22 p.)
RS20147 Committee of the Whole: An Introduction (6 p.)
RS20794 Committee System in the U.S. Congress, The (6 p.)
98-241 ^Committee Types and Roles (4 p.)
RL32207 ^Commonly Used Motions and Requests in the House of Representatives (17 p.)
96-708 ^Conference Committee and Related Procedures: An Introduction (10 p.)
98-708 Conference Committee Deliberations (2 p.)
98-382 Conference Reports and Joint Explanatory Statements (2 p.)
RS21339 *Congress' Early Organization Meetings (3 p.)
R42388 ^Congressional Appropriation Process, The: An Introduction (25 p.)
R42487 ^Congressional Arts Caucus and the Congressional Art Competition, The (25 p.)
RL32926 ^Congressional Authority Over Federal Courts (34 p.)
RL31880 Congressional Budget Office: Appointment and Tenure of the Director and Deputy Director (8 p.)
RS20095 ^Congressional Budget Process, The: A Brief Overview (6 p.)
98-472 ^Congressional Budget Process Timetable, The (6 p.)
RL30297 ^Congressional Budget Resolutions (42 p.)
R41545 ^Congressional Careers: Service Tenure and Patterns of Member Service (16 p.)
R40076 ^Congressional Commissions: Overview, Structure, and Legislative Considerations (31 p.)
IN10774 ^Congressional Consideration of Resolutions to "Censure" Executive Branch Officials (3 p.)
RS22771 ^Congressional Franking Privilege: Background and Current Legislation (6 p.)
RL30076 Congressional Gold Medals, 1776-20?? (33 p.)
R45101 ^Congressional Gold Metals: Background, Legislative Process, and Issues for Congress (22 p.)
RL34354 ^Congressional Influence on Rulemaking and Regulation Through Appropriation Restrictions (49
RL32113 ^Congressional Intervention in the Administrative Process: Legal & Ethical Considerations (88
RL31836 ^Congressional Investigations: Subpoenas and Contempt Power (43 p.)
98-446 ^Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies (42 p.)
R40683 ^Congressional Member Organizations: Their Purpose and Activities, History, & Formation (29 p.)
RL33313 ^Congressional Membership and Appointment Authority to Advisory Commissions, Boards, and Groups (130 p.)
R44816 ^Congressional News Media and the House and Senate Press Galleries (19 p.)
RL33213 ^Congressional Nominations to U.S. Service Academies: An Overview (21 p.)
RL34188 Congressional Official Mail Costs (10 p.)
RS22230 ^Congressional or Federal Charters: Overview and Current Issues (6 p.)
R41079 ^Congressional Oversight: An Overview (20 p.)
RL30240 ^Congressional Oversight Manual (168 p.)
RL32935 ^Congressional Oversight of Judges and Justices (37 p.)
R40897 ^Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress (37 p.)
93-60 *Congressional Record: Content, History and Issues (28 p.) (01/14/1993)
98-266 ^Congressional Record: Its Production, Distribution, and Accessibility (3 p.)
R42831 ^Congressional Redistricting: An Overview (26 p.)
R42482 ^Congressional Redistricting and the Voting Rights Act: A Legal Overview (18 p.)
R44798 ^Congressional Redistricting Law: Background and Recent Court Rulings (23 p.)
R44199 ^Congressional Redistricting: Legal and Constitutional Issues (17 p.)
RS22628 Congressional Redistricting: The Constitutionality of Creating an At-Large District (4 p.)
RL33471 ^Congressional Research Service and the American Legislative Process, The (12 p.)
R43992 ^Congressional Review Act, The: Frequently Asked Questions (28 p.)
RL30562 Congressional Roll Call and Other Votes: 1st Congress - 10?th Congress, 1789-20?? (12 p.)
RL30064 ^Congressional Salaries and Allowances (15 p.)
R44688 ^Congressional Staff: CRS Products on Size, Pay, and Job Tenure (3 p.)
RL34545 Congressional Staff: Duties and Functions of Selected Positions (15 p.)
93-920 *Congressional Standing Committee System, The (76 p.)
96-727 Congressional Statistics: Bills Introduced and Laws Enacted, 1947-20?? (44 p.)
RL30340 Congressionally Chartered Nonprofit Organizations ("Title 36 Corporations") (17 p.)
RL34114 Congress's Contempt Power: A Sketch (19 p.)
RL34097 ^Congress's Contempt Power and the Enforcement of Congressional Subpoenas: .. (89 p.)
R44967 ^Congress's Power Over Courts: Jurisdiction Stripping and the Rule of Klein (24 p.)
R43424 ^Considering Legislation on the House Floor: Common Practices in Brief (9 p.)
98-427 ^Considering Measures in the House Under One-Hour Rule (4 p.)
RS22711 Considering Regular Appropriation Bills on the House Floor: Unanimous Consent Agreements
R44726 ^Constituent Services: Overview and Resources (9 p.)
R44729 ^Constitutional Authority Statements and the Power of Congress: An Overview (34 p.)
R40948 ^Constitutional Points of Order in the Senate (9 p.)
RL33824 Constitutionality of Awarding the Delegate for the District of Columbia a Vote in the House of Representatives (22 p.)
RL32102 Constitutionality of a Senate Filibuster of a Judicial Nomination (15 p.)
R40683 ^Contested Election Cases in the House of Representatives: 1933 to 2009 (55 p.)
RL30343 Continuing Resolutions: Latest Action and Brief Overview of Recent Practices (12 p.)
R42647 ^Continuing Resolutions: Overview of Components and Recent Practices (34 p.)
R41974 ^Cost-Benefit and Other Analysis Requirements in the Rulemaking Process (43 p.)
RS21667 Dear Colleague Letters: A Brief Overview (6 p.)
RL34636 Dear Colleague Letters: Current Practices (8 p.)
LSB10096 ^Constitutionality of Censuring the President, The (3 p.)
R44768 ^"Dear Colleague" Letters in the House of Representatives: Past Practices and Issues for Congress (20 p.)
98-827 Debate and Motions on the House Floor: Allocation of Time (2 p.)
RL32200 Debate, Motions, and Other Actions in the Committee of the Whole (20 p.)
RL31913 ^Debt Limit Legislation: The House "Gephardt Rule" (14 p.)
R43389 ^Debt Limit Since 2011, The (26 p.)
98-572 Decorum in House Debate (34 p.)
R44296 ^Deeming Resolutions: Budget Enforcement in the Absence of a Budget Resolution (21 p.)
RL31443 Deeming Resolution, The: A Budget Enforcement Tool (29 p.)
R44296 ^Deeming Resolutions: Budget Enforcement in the Absence of a Budget Resolution (21 p.)
R40555 ^Delegates to the U.S. Congress: History and Current Status (15 p.)
IN10910 ^Discharge Petitions and the House Discharge Rule (html)
97-552 Discharge Rule in the House, The: Principal Features and Uses(6 p.)
RS22866 ^Earmark Disclosure Rules in the House: Member and Committee Requirements (7 p.)
RS22867 ^Earmark Disclosure Rules in the Senate: Member and Committee Requirements (8 p.)
RS20300 Election of the President and Vice President by Congress: Contingent Election (6 p.)
R44243 ^Electing of the Speaker of the House of Representatives: Frequently Asked Questions (6 p.)
RS21140 Emergency Electronic Communications in Congress: Proposals and Issues (6 p.)
RL34597 ^Enactment of Appropriations Measures During Lame Duck Sessions, The (20 p.)
RL30764 ^Enforcement of Congressional Rules of Conduct: An Historical Overview (16 p.)
98-826 Engrossment, Enrollment, and Presentation of Legislation (3 p.)
RL34480 ^Enrollment of Legislation: Relevant Congressional Procedures (8 p.)
RL31948 Evolution of the Senate's Role in the Nomination and Confirmation Process: A Brief History
SP113-30 Evolving Congress, The (Senate Print by CRS via FDsys, Dec. 2014) (490 p.)
RL30619 Examples of Legislative Provisions in Omnibus Appropriations Acts (14 p.)
RS22209 Executive Lobbying: Statutory Controls (6 p.)
RS22034 Expedited or "Fast-Track" Legislative Procedures (2 p.)
RL30599 ^Expedited Procedures in the House: Variations Enacted Into Law (17 p.)
RL31382 Expulsion, Censure, Reprimand and Fine: Legislative Discipline in the House of Representatives
RL30812 Federal Statutes: What They Are and Where to Find Them (9 p.)
RL30315 Federalism, State Sovereignity and the Constitution: Basis & Limits of Congressional Power (26
RS20928 ^Field Hearings: Fact Sheet on Purposes, Rules, Regulations, and Guidelines (4 p.)
RL30360 Filibusters and Cloture in the Senate (25 p.)
R40421 Filling U.S. Senate Vacancies: Perspectives and Contemporary Developments (15 p.)
RL30725 ^First Day of a New Congress: A Guide to Proceedings on the House Floor, The (11 p.)
RS20722 ^First Day of a New Congress: A Guide to Proceedings on the Senate Floor, The (13 p.)
98-737 ^Floor Consideration of Conference Reports in the Senate (6 p.)
97-236 Floor Procedure in the House of Representatives: A Brief Overview (4 p.)
98-865 ^Flow of Business: Typical Day on the Senate Floor (6 p.)
RS20099 Former Speakers of the House: Office Allowances, Franking Privileges, & Staff Assistance (6 p.)
RL34458 ^Franking Privilege: An Analysis of Member Mass Mailings in the House, 1997-20## (14 p.)
RS20723 Freshmen in the House of Representatives and Senate by Political Party: 1913 to 20## (5 p.)
RL30349 GAO: Government Accountability Office and General Accounting Office (21 p.)
RS20200 General Debate in the Committee of the Whole (5 p.)
R45134 ^Germaneness of Debate in the Senate: The Pastore Rule (11 p.)
RS20454 Going to Conference in the Senate (3 p.)
RL34035 ^Grants Work in a Congressional Office (24 p.)
R45104 ^Guide to Committee Activity Reports: Purpose, Rules, and Contents (18 p.)
98-396 ^Guide to Individuals Seated on the House Dais (5 p.)
98-397 Guide to Individuals Seated on the Senate Dais (2 p.)
RS20884 Guide to Major Congressional and Presidential Awards, A (6 p.)
96-623 *Hearings in the House of Representatives: A Guide for Preparation and Conduct (25 p.)
RL30548 Hearings in the U.S. Senate: A Guide for Preparation and Procedure (25 p.)
R41519 ^History and Authority of the Joint Economic Committee (5 p.)
R44770 ^History, Evolution, and Practices of the President's State of the Union Address (9 p.)
R44600 ^History of House and Senate Restaurants: Context for Current Operations and Issues (19 p.)
RL32013 History of the Blue Slip in the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 1917-Present (28 p.)
R41465 History of the Joint Committee of Non-Essential Federal Expenditures (1941-1974) (28 p.)
R43563 ^"Holds" in the Senate (11 p.)
R44736 ^"Holman Rule (House Rule XXI, Clause 2(b)), The (9 p.)
98-401 House Administrative Officers and Officials (3 p.)
RS20427 House and Senate Chaplains (3 p.)
R41807 *House and Senate Chaplains: An Overview (6 p.)
RL30945 House and Senate Rules of Procedure: A Comparison (13 p.)
RL34462 House and Senate Procedural Rules Concerning Earmark Disclosure (10 p.)
R44601 ^House and Senate Restaurants: Current Operations and Issues for Congress (18 p.)
97-1009 House and Senate Vacancies: How Are They Filled (5 p.)
RL34679 ^House Committee Chairs: Considerations, Decisions, and Actions as One Congress Ends and a New Congress Begins (29 p.)
R42778 ^House Committee Funding: Description of Process and Analysis of Disbursements (13 p.)
RL32794 ^House Committee Funding Requests and Authorizations: 104th - 114th Congresses (27 p.)
98-304 ^House Committee Hearings: Arranging Witnesses (5 p.)
98-488 ^House Committee Hearings: Preparation (5 p.)
98-339 ^House Committee Hearings: Scheduling and Notification (5 p.)
98-338 ^House Committee Hearings: Witness Testimony (3 p.)
98-175 House Committee Jurisdiction and Referral: Rules and Practice (2 p.)
98-168 House Committee Markup: Preparation (2 p.)
RS20308 House Committee Markups: Commonly Used Motions and Requests (5 p.)
R41083 ^House Committee Markups: Manual of Procedures and Political Strategies (208 p.)
98-15 ^House Committee on Ethics: A Brief History of Its Evolution and Jurisdiction (31 p.)
R40478 ^House Committee Party Ratios: 98th-114th Congresses (24 p.)
98-169 House Committee Reports: Required Contents (2 p.)
RL32661 House Committees: A Framework for Considering Jurisdictional Realignment (11 p.)
98-151 ^House Committees: Categories and Rules for Committee Assignments (6 p.)
98-194 House Contested Election Cases: 1933 to 2003 (43 p.)
R45209 ^House Journal: Origin, Purpose, and Approval, The (19 p.)
R41382 ^House of Representatives Apportionment Formula: An Analysis of Proposals for Change (25 p.)
R44450 ^House of Representatives v. Burwell and Congressional Standing to Sue (24 p.)
R40760 ^House Office of Congressional Ethics: History, Authority, and Procedures (34 p.)
RS22890 House Office of General Counsel (2 p.)
RL31055 ^House Offset Amendments to Appropriations Bills: Procedural Considerations (19 p.)
RL31909 House Resolutions of Inquiry (22 p.)
98-313 House Rules Committee Hearings on Special Rules (2 p.)
98-262 House Rules Manual: Summary of Contents (2 p.)
98-835 House Sergent at Arms: Fact Sheet on Legislative and Administrative Duties (2 p.)
RS21165 ^House Standing Committee Chairs and Ranking Minority Members: Rules Governing Selection Procedures (8 p.)
R41605 ^House Standing Committees' Rules on Legislative Activities: Analysis in the 114th Congress (69 p.)
RL32031 House Vacancies: Proposed Constitutional Amendments for Filing Them Due to Natl Emergencies (11 p.)
RL31394 House Vacancies: Selected Proposals for Filing Them After a Catastrophic Loss of Members (23
98-228 House Voting Procedures: Forms and Requirements (2 p.)
RS20617 How Bills Amend Statutes (2 p.)
R40829 How Legislation is Brought to the House Floor: A Snapshot ... (10 p.)
RS20067 ^How Measures Are Brought to the House Floor: A Brief Introduction (8 p.)
RS20668 ^How Measures Are Brought to the Senate Floor: A Brief Introduction (8 p.
R44260 ^Impeachment and Removal (27 p.)
98-186 Impeachment: An Overview of Constitutional Provisions, Procedure, and Practice (32 p.)
RS22556 Incapacity of a Member of the Senate (6 p.)
RL30288 Informal Congressional Groups and Member Organizations: 106th Congress (61 p.)
98-381 Instructing House Conferees (2 p.)
RL34700 Interim Continuing Resolutions (CRs): Potential Impacts on Agency Operations (14 p.)
R41388 International Travel by Congress: Legislation in the 111th Congress (28 p.)
R44001 ^Introducing a House Bill or Resolution (11 p.)
98-459 ^Introducing a Senate Bill or Resolution (4 p.)
R42843 ^Introduction to the Legislative Process in the U.S. Congress (15 p.)
98-381 Instructing House Conferees (3 p.)
98-425 ^Invoking Cloture in the Senate (4 p.)
RL33635 Item Veto and Expanded Impoundment Proposals: History and Current Status (29 p.)
RL33677 ^Lame Duck Sessions of Congress, 1935-20## (34 p.)
R41428 Leaving Congress: House of Representatives and Senate Departures Data Since 1989 (6 p.)
R42072 ^Legislative Branch Agency Appointments: History, Processes, and Recent Actions (12 p.)
R40939 ^Legislative Branch Revolving Funds (31 p.)
R40056 Legislative Branch Staffing, 1954-20?? (13 p.)
R41685 ^Legislative History Research: A Basic Guide (12 p.)
RS20991 ^Legislative Planning: Considerations for Congressional Staff (7 p.)
95-563 ^Legislative Process on the House Floor, The: An Introduction (15 p.)
96-548 ^Legislative Process on the Senate Floor, The: An Introduction (17 p.)
RS21363 ^Legislative Procedure in Congress: Basic Sources for Congressional Staff (10 p.)
98-996 *Legislative Procedures and the Legislative Agenda in the House of Representatives (34 p.)
RS21519 ^Legislative Procedures for Adjusting the Public Debt Limit: A Brief Overview (12 p.)
95-563 Legislative Process on the House Floor, The: An Introduction (13 p.)
R43434 ^Legislative Research for Congressional Staff: How to Find Documents and Other Resources
RS20120 Legislative Support Resources: Offices and Websites for Congressional Staff (8 p.)
RS21285 Length of Congressional Service: First Through 107th Congresses (6 p.)
R41634 ^Limitations in Appropriations Measures: An Overview and Procedural Issues (24 p.)
RL31126 Lobbying Congress: An Overview of Legal Provisions and Congressional Ethics Rules (25 p.)
R44292 ^Lobbying Disclosure Act at 20, The: Analysis and Issues for Congress (42 p.)
RL33065 Lobbying Disclosure Reform: Background and Legislative Proposals, 109th Congress (15 p.)
RL34166 Lobbying Law and Ethics Rules Changes in the 110th Congress (19 p.)
96-809 Lobbying Regulations on Non-Profit Organizations (12 p.)
R40858 ^Locate an Agency or Program Within Appropriations Bills (14 p.)
RL30607 Major Leadership Election Contests in the House of Representatives, 94th - 111th Congresses (23 p.)
RL30704 Major Leadership Election Contests In the Senate, 94th - 111th Congresses (13 p.)
RL34347 Members of Congress Who Die in Office: Historic and Current Practice (24 p.)
98-735 Members of the U.S. Congress Who Have Died of Other Than Natural Causes While in Office (7
R40086 Membership in the 111th Congress: A Profile (7 p.)
R41647 ^Membership in the 112th Congress: A Profile (13 p.)
R42964 ^Membership in the 113th Congress: A Profile (13 p.)
R43869 ^Membership in the 114th Congress: A Profile (13 p.)
R44762 ^Membership in the 115th Congress: A Profile (12 p.)
R40962 ^Members' Representational Allowance: History and Usage (20 p.)
RL30370 Members Who Have Served in the U.S. Congress 30 Years or More (21 p.)
RL30607 "Memorandum of Understanding", The: A Senate Compromise on Judicial Filibusters (15 p.)
98-839 Messages, Petitions, Communications, and Memorials to Congress (3 p.)
RS20131 Morning Hour Debates: Current House Practices (4 p.)
98-383 Motions to Recommit in the House (2 p.)
R41606 Murder or Attempted Murder of a Member of Congress and Other Federal Officials and Employees (10 p.)
RS21562 Naming Post Offices Through Legislation (5 p.)
RL33215 National Security Whistleblowers (43 p.)
RL34037 ^No Confidence Votes and Other Forms of Congressional Censure of Public Officials (17 p.)
R42963 ^Nominations to Cabinet Positions During the Inter-Term Transitions Since 1984 (24 p.)
LegalSi ^"Notwithstanding Any Other Provision of Law": Does It Really Mean That No Other Provisions of Law Apply? (2 p.)
RL34304 ^Obstruction of Congress: A Brief Overview of Federal Law (55 p.)
RL34303 Obstruction of Justice: An Overview of Federal Statutes (86 p.)
RS20735 Office of Legislative Counsel: House (3 p.)
RS20856 Office of Legislative Counsel: Senate (3 p.)
R40133 Office of the House of Representatives Inspector General (2 p.)
RS22891 Office of Senate Legal Counsel (3 p.)
RS20544 ^Office of the Parliamentarian in the House and Senate (3 p.)
RS20544 ^Offices and Officials in the Senate: Roles and Duties (17 p.)
RL32473 ^Omnibus Appropriations Acts: Overview of Recent Practices (16 p.)
RL30135 ^One-Minute Speeches: Current House Practices (10 p.)
RS20199 Ordering a Roll Call Vote in the Senate (2 p.)
LSB10022 ^Out of Office: Vacancies, Acting Officers, and Day 301 (2 p.)
RS20371 Overview of the Authorization-Appropriation Process (2 p.)
98-806 Overview of the Impeachment Process, An (6 p.)
98-970 ^Pairing in Congressional Voting: The House (5 p.)
RL32206 Parliament and Congress: A Brief Comparison of the British House of Commons and the House of Representatives
RL30787 Parliamentary Reference Sources: House of Representatives (49 p.)
RL30788 Parliamentary Reference Sources: Senate (34 p.)
RL34599 Parliamentary-Style Question Period, A: Proposals and Issues for Congress (35 p.)
RS20881 ^Party Duties in the House: Election, Duties and Responsibilities (4 p.)
RS20881 ^Party Leaders in the House: Election, Duties, and Responsibilities (4 p.)
RL30567 ^Party Leaders in the United States Congress, 1789-20?? (38 p.)
97-865 ^Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process (18 p.)
97-307 ^Points of Order, Rulings, and Appeals in the House of Representatives (4 p.)
98-306 Points of Order, Rulings, and Appeals in the Senate (5 p.)
RL32844 Power to Regulate Commerce, The: Limits on Congressional Power (20 p.)
RL30960 President Pro Tempore of the Senate: History and Authority of the Office (27 p.)
RL31351 Presidential Advisers' Testimony Before Congressional Committees: An Overview (31 p.)
RL30959 ^Presidential Appointee Positions Requiring Senate Confirmation and Committees Handling Nominations (48 p.)
RS21750 Presidential Veto and Congressional Procedure, The (5 p.)
98-148 Presidential Vetoes, 1789-Present: A Summary Overview (3 p.)
RL30960 ^President Pro Tempore of the Senate: History and Authority of the Office (29 p.)
98-315 ^Privileged Business on the House Floor (3 p.)
RS22450 Procedural Analysis of Private Laws Enacted: 1986-20?? (8 p.)
98-143 ^Procedural Distinctions between the House and the Committee of the Whole (3 p.)
RL31685 ^Proposals to Reform "Holds" in the Senate (17 p.)
RS20748 Protection of Classified Information by Congress: Practices and Proposals (5 p.)
RS22952 Proxy Voting and Polling in Senate Committees (6 p.)
98-687 Public Printing Reform: Issues and Actions (32 p.)
98-673 ^Publications of Congressional Committees: A Summary (6 p.)
98-406 Publications of the U.S. House of Representatives (3 p.)
98-503 Publications of the U.S. Senate (3 p.)
98-411 ^Questions of Privilege in the House (4 p.)
98-870 ^Quorum Requirements in the House: Committee and Chamber (5 p.)
98-775 ^Quorum Requirements in the Senate: Committee and Chamber (3 p.)
RL33009 Recess Appointments: A Legal Overview (17 p.)
R42933 ^Regular Appropriations Bills: Terms of Initial Consideration and Amendment in the House, FY1996-FY20## (27 p.)
RS22188 ^Regular Vetoes and Pocket Vetoes: An Overview (9 p.)
IN10775 ^Resolutions Censoring the President: History and Context, 1st-114th Congresses (3 p.)
R40879 Resolutions of Inquiry: An Analysis of Their Use in the House, 1947- (70 p.)
RL30261 ^Resolutions to Censure the President: Procedure and History (20 p.)
98-696 ^Resolving Legislative Differences in Congress: Conference Committees and Amendments  Between Houses (35 p.)
RL30631 Retirement Benefits for Members of Congress (13 p.)
R42395 ^Retrospective of House Rules Changes Since the 110th Congress, A (79 p.)
RL33939 Rise of Senate Unanimous Consent Agreements, The (6 p.)
RL34405 Role of Home State Senators in the Selection of Lower Federal Court Judges (66 p.)
RL30665 Role of the House Majority Leader, The: An Overview (12 p.)
RL30666 Role of the House Minority Leader, The: An Overview (12 p.)
R41110 Role of the House of Representatives in Judicial Impeachment Proceedings: Procedure, Practice, & Data (22 p.)
R41172 ^Role of the Senate in Judicial Impeachment Proceedings: Procedure, Practice, & Data (31 p.)
RL33686 Roles and Duties of a Member of Congress (11 p.)
RS22299 Routes to the Senate Floor: Rule XIV and Unanimous Consent (6 p.)
R41408 ^Rules and Practices Governing Consideration of Revenue Legislation ... (23 p.)
98-53 Salaries of Federal Officials: A Fact Sheet (2 p.)
97-615 ^Salaries of Members of Congress: Congressional Votes, 1990-20## (34 p.)
RL30014 Salaries of Members of Congress: Current Procedures and Recent Adjustments (23 p.)
97-1011 ^Salaries of Members of Congress: Recent Actions and Historical Tables (25 p.)
RS20388 Salary Linkage: Members of Congress and Other Federal Executive and Judicial Officials (6 p.)
RS20145 Secret Sessions of Congress: A Brief Historical Overview (6 p.
98-718 Secret Sessions of the House and Senate (3 p.)
98-747 Secretary of the Senate: Legislative and Administrative Duties (6 p.)
98-962 Selected Privileges and Courtesies Extended to Departing and Former Members of the House (5
98-963 Selected Privileges and Courtesies Extended to Departing and Former Senators (5 p.)
98-418 Senate Administrative Officers and Officials (3 p.)
RS22972 Senate, The: An Overview (6 p.)
98-489 ^Senate Committee Hearings: Preparation (4 p.)
RS22649 Senate Committee Hearings: The "Minority Witness Rule" (2 p.)
98-337 ^Senate Committee Hearings: Scheduling and Notification (3 p.)
98-392 ^Senate Committee Hearings: Witness Testimony (3 p.)
RL34752 ^Senate Committee Party Ratios: 98th-114th Congresses (24 p.)
98-305 Senate Committee Reports: Required Contents (2 p.)
RL33972 Senate Committee Rules in the 110th Congress: A Comparison of Key Provisions (37 p.)
R44369 ^Senate Committee Rules in the 114th Congress: Key Provisions (31 p.)
R44901 ^Senate Committee Rules in the 115th Congress: Key Provisions (31 p.)
98-380 ^Senate Conferees: Their Selection and Authority (6 p.)
RS20986 Senate Confirmation Process: A Brief Overview (3 p.)
RL31980 ^Senate Consideration of Presidential Nominations: Committee and Floor Procedure (17 p.)
98-384 ^Senate Consideration of Treaties (4 p.)
98-429 ^Senate's Calendar of Business, The (4 p.)
98-438 ^Senate's Executive Calendar, The (4 p.)
97-368 Senate Floor Procedure: A Summary (43 p.)
IN10476 ^Senate Judiciary Committee Hearings for Supreme Court Nominations: Historical Overview and Data (4 p.)
RS20933 Senate Leadership Structure: Overview of Party Organization (2 p.)
98-470 Senate Manual: A Guide to Its Contents (2 p.)
RL32015 Senate Policy Committees (7 p.)
RL34255 Senate Policy on "Holds": Action in the 110th Congress (12 p.)
R44819 ^Senate Proceedings Establishing Majority Cloture for Supreme Court Nominations (6 p.)
RS22309 ^Senate Rule XIV Procedures for Placing Measures Directly on the Senate Calendar (6 p.)
98-311 ^Senate Rules Affecting Committees (11 p.)
RS22733 Senate Rules Changes in the 110th Congress Affecting Restrictions on the Content of Conference Reports
RS22733 ^Senate Rules Restricting the Content of Conference Reports (7 p.)
RL30650 ^Senate Select Committee on Ethics, The: A Brief History of Its Evolution and Jurisdiction (25 p.)
R45170 ^Senate "Two-Hour Rule" Governing Committee Meeting Times, The (18 p.)
98-310 ^Senate Unanimous Consent Agreements: Potential Effects on the Amendment Process (6 p.)
98-825 "Sense of" Resolutions and Provisions (2 p.)
R42972 ^Sequestration as a Budget Enforcement Process: Frequently Asked Questions (8 p.)
97-780 ^Speaker of the House, The: House Officer, Party Leader, and Representative (13 p.)
RL30857 ^Speakers of the House: Elections, 1913+ (9 p.)
RS22991 Speaking on the House Floor: Gaining Time and Parliamentary Phraseology (6 p.)
RL30136 Special Order Speeches: Current House Practices (8 p.)
RS21174 Special Order Speeches and Other Forms of Non-Legislative Debate in the House (3 p.)
98-612 Special Rules and Options for Regulating the Amending Process (22 p.)
98-433 Special Rules and Waivers of House Rules (2 p.)
98-170 Speechwriting in Perspective: A Brief Guide to Effective and Persuasive Communication (23 p.)
RS22477 ^Sponsorship and Cosponsorship pf House Bills (4 p.)
98-279 ^Sponsorship and Cosponsorship of Senate Bills (5 p.)
R44539 ^Statements of Administration Policy. (on pending legislation) (19 p.)
R44322 ^Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in House Committees, 2001-2015 (20 p.)
R44323 ^Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in House Member Offices, 2001-2015 (22 p.)
R44325 ^Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senate Committees, FY2001-FY2015 (23 p.)
R44324 ^Staff Pay Levels for Selected Positions in Senator's Offices, FY2001-FY2015 (26 p.)
RL33229 ^Status of a Member of the House Who Has Been Indicted for or Convicted of a Felony (13 p.)
RL34716 ^Status of a Senator Who Has Been Indicted for or Convicted of a Felony (13 p.)
97-589 Statutory Construction General Principles and Recent Trends (41 p.)
98-544 Subcommittees in the House of Representatives (3 p.)
RL33220 Support Offices in the House of Representatives: Roles and Authorities (23 p.)
R44236 ^Supreme Court Appointment Process: Consideration by the Senate Judiciary Committee (24 p.)
R44235 ^Supreme Court Appointment Process: President's Selection of a Nominee (25 p.)
RL31989 Supreme Court Appointment Process: Roles of the President, Judiciary Committee and Senate (50 p.)
R44234 ^Supreme Court Appointment Process: Senate Debate and Confirmation Vote (27 p.)
RL33225 Supreme Court Nominations, 1789 - 2009: Actions by the Senate, the Judiciary Committee, and President (43 p.)
RL31171 Supreme Court Nominations Not Confirmed, 1789-20?? (25 p.)
RL33247 ^Supreme Court Nominations: Senate Floor Procedure and Practice, 1789-20## (48 p.)
R44247 ^Survey of House and Senate Committee Rules on Subpoenas, A (19 p.)
RL32474 Suspension of the Rules in the House of Representatives (44 p.)
98-461 Tracking Current Federal Legislation and Regulations: A Guide to Basic Sources (14 p.)
98-317 ^Types of Committee Hearings (4 p.)
98-225 Unanimous Consent Agreements in the Senate (2 p.)
RL34619 ^Use of the Capitol Rotunda, Capitol Grounds, and Emancipation Hall: Concurrent Resolutions, 101st to 1##th Congress (24 p.)
98-265 ^User's Guide to the Congressional Record, A (2 p.)
R44781 ^U.S. Senate Vacancies: Contemporary Developments and Perspectives (18 p.)
RS22654 ^Veto Override Procedure in the House and Senate (7 p.)
R41609 ^Violence Against Members of Congress and Their Staff: Selected Examples and Congressional Responses (12 p.)
R41814 ^Votes on Measures to Adjust the Statutory Debt Limit, 1978 to Present (16 p.)
98-227 Voting in the Senate: Forms and Requirements (2 p.)
97-896 Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties
LSB10106 ^Whose Line is it Anyway: Could Congress Give the President a Line-Item Veto? (3 p.)
RL30261 ^Women in Congress, 1917-20##: Service Dates and Committee Assignments ... (109 p.)
R43244 ^Women in Congress: Historical Overview, Tables, and Discussion (25 p.)
RL30261 ^Women in the United States Congress: 1917 - 20??: Biographical and ... (107 p.)

Major CRS Report Repositories on the Free Internet (most all CRS reports after 2017 - search template, categories)

National Agricultural Law Center (selected CRS reports on Agriculture Issues) (selected CRS Reports on Global Security and Related Issues)

FAS - Federation of American Scientists (recent CRS Reports on Secrecy, Intelligence, Homeland Security, National Security, Weapons Systems, Terrorism, Foreign Policy, Space Policy & Miscellaneous Topics)

Stanford University (large repository of CRS reports from June, 2008)

UNT - Univ. of North Texas Libray (large repository of CRS products from 1979) (large repository of CRS reports from the 1990's to the near present) (large repository of CRS reports from the 1990's to 2016)


Major Commercial Repositories for CRS Reports

Proquest Congressional Research Digital Collection (CRS products from 1916 to present - most comprehensive)

HeinOnline U.S. Congressional Documents Library  (CRS reports from 1999 to near present)

Lexis - Congressional Research Service Reports from 2005 to near present

Bloomberg Government (BGOV) (CRS reports from 2003 to the near present)


About CRS Reports and Proposed Legislation on CRS Reports

The Congressional Research Service (CRS), in the Library of Congress, is a non-partisan public policy research arm of the United States Congress established in 1914 (38 Stat. 1005 and 60 Stat. 836; now codified at 2 U.S.C. 166). The agency serves Congress exclusively and provides members and committees with reference and research services as well as in-depth analysis of legislative issues (see CRS Report RL33471). With a staff of more than 700, CRS produces or updates some 3,000 studies and other publications annually. CRS does not distribute its reports to the public, nor does it make them available on the Internet. Most of the above links are to sites on the University of Texas Digital Library ( which has acquired thousands of CRS documents from public sources. A CRS report with an upper arrow (^) indicates the report is linked to the most recent version of CRS documents acquired by the Federation of American Scientists ( and an asterisk (*) before report title represents a link to an LLSDC site. See also article, Guide to CRS Reports on the Web by Stephen Young. 

Over the years various legislative proposals have been made in Congress to place CRS reports on the Internet. Finally, on March 23, 2018, in the FY 2018 Consolidated Appropriations Act (Public Law 115-141), Congress enacted a provision (sec. 154, 132 Stat. 348, 787) requiring the Librarian of Congress to establish and maintain a free public website containing all non-confidential CRS reports that shall be "searchable, sortable, and downloadable, including downloadable in bulk." There is a 90 day effective date in the provision, but retrospective CRS reports will generally not be a part of the new database.   

In prior years legislation calling for CRS reports to be available to the public include H.R. 2335 (115th Congress), H.R. 1381 (114th Congress), H.R. 4702 (114th Congress), S. 2639 (114th Congress), H. Res. 34 (114th Congress), H.R. 4245 (113th Congress), H. Res. 110 (113th Congress), H.R. 2340 (112th Congress), H.Res. 727 (112th Congress), S. Res. 118 (111th Congress), H.R. 3762 (111th Congress), H.R. 2545 (110th Congress), S.Res. 401 (110th Congress), H.R. 3630 (108th Congress), S. Res. 54 (108th Congress), S. Res. 21 (107th Congress), H.R. 654 (106th Congress), H.R. 4582 (106th Congress), S. 393, (106th Congress), H.R. 3131 (105th Congress), and S. 1578 (105th Congress - hearings held). See internal memo on the CRS perspective of making its products public and a commentary by Paul Weyrich advocating their availability to the public. 

Compiled and maintained by Rick McKinney, retired Federal law librarian, Washington, D.C.
Please email your questions or comments to the Legislative SIS.

Last updated on May 2, 2019